Cancer is the name given to an abnormal division of cells that the body fails to control and starts having its own blood supply. In time, cancer cells start spreading to other tissues of the body, resulting in impaired function of the organs. This abnormal group of cells is usually found in the form of a mass called tumor, which can be benign or malignant. Benign means the dividing cells are within the same organ, and they do not have the ability to spread further. But cancer has a high chance of spreading in a late phase of the disease, in a process called metastasis.
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The urinary bladder is an organ that stores the urine. During urination, the urinary bladder passes urine via the urethra to the outside. The bladder is made up of transitional epithelium, which means that the lining it has can alter its shape depending on the stress it gets from its own filling pressure.
There are various types of bladder cancer, depending on the shape of the cancerous cells, and it can be determined by seeing a sample under the microscope. Most bladder cancers are malignant, and benign bladder tumors are rare. The most common types are:
Transitional cell carcinoma
It is by far the most common bladder cancer, accounting for 90% of cases.
Squamous cell carcinoma
It accounts for 4% of all bladder cancers, and they develop whenever there is irritation in the lining of the bladder.
It account for 2% of bladder cancers, and it arises from glandular cells in the urinary bladder.
Bladder cancer mostly affects older adults, mostly above 60 years old. Men are more affected than women. It is relatively difficult to diagnose, but the signs and symptoms to suspect this type of cancer are as follows: